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Could other human species still exist?

Humans, known scientifically as Homo sapiens, are the only surviving species of hominins, a branch of great apes characterized by upright posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity, and increased cranial capacity. Hominins emerged within the past 10 million years, and early species include the likes of Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis which have since gone extinct. This leads to an intriguing question – could other human species still exist in the modern day?

When did other human species go extinct?

Based on fossil evidence, scientists have pieced together a timeline of when other human species like Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis died out:

Species Estimated Time Period of Extinction
Homo erectus 143,000 – 50,000 years ago
Homo neanderthalensis 40,000 years ago
Homo floresiensis 50,000 years ago
Homo denisova 15,000 years ago

As we can see from the table, all other human species except Homo sapiens appear to have died out tens of thousands of years ago based on the fossil record. There is no evidence any of these species overlapped or coexisted with modern humans in any significant numbers. Their extinction predates recorded human history.

Could small populations have survived in isolation?

One hypothetical scenario is that small populations of extinct human species like Homo erectus or Homo floresiensis managed to survive in extremely isolated areas where they avoided contact and interbreeding with Homo sapiens. Even just a few hundred individuals could constitute a viable population able to reproduce over many generations.

Remote locations like dense jungles on tropical islands, for example, could potentially have allowed relic populations to persist into the modern era. Without evidence, however, this remains mere speculation.

Homo floresiensis

Homo floresiensis inhabited the island of Flores in Indonesia as recently as 50,000 years ago. Due to the island’s isolation, some speculate that descendants of this small-bodied species could have survived in hiding long after they died out elsewhere.

Homo denisova

Traces of Homo denisova DNA have been found in indigenous populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania, indicating some interbreeding occurred before they went extinct around 15,000 years ago. Perhaps a few lived on in obscurity in those tropical regions.

Why haven’t we found more evidence?

There are a few reasons why the continued existence of extinct human species is unlikely:

  • Fossil evidence offers a relatively clear timeline of when each species flourished and died out.
  • No specimens have ever been scientifically documented despite exploration of even remote wilderness.
  • Modern humans have colonized most of the planet, making undiscovered relic populations harder to hide.
  • Interbreeding with Homo sapiens likely would have assimilated any small groups over time.

Of course, absence of evidence does not necessarily mean evidence of absence. But the lack of any concrete finds makes the possibility of survivors highly speculative.

Could hybrid species have developed?

Rather than relic populations, perhaps previously unknown hybrid species descended from extinct humans and Homo sapiens could still walk among us. Some evidence lends weak support:

  • Genetic studies show interbreeding between ancient species was common.
  • Isolated hybrid groups conceivably could have branched off over tens of thousands of years.
  • Odd features like exaggerated limbs occasionally surface, hinting at distant mixed ancestry.

However, known hybrid pairings like Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis presumably blended back into the wider Homo sapiens gene pool. Truly distinct hybrid branches would have faced the same isolation pressures and colonization by modern humans that likely doomed their parent species.

Speculative hybrid species origins

Here are some hypothetical hybrid origins that likely remain scientifically unfounded:

  • Homo sapiens + Homo erectus in Asia
  • Homo sapiens + Homo floresiensis in Indonesia
  • Homo sapiens + Homo denisova in Oceania


In conclusion, while isolated populations or previously unknown hybrid species descended from extinct human relatives cannot be ruled out entirely, most evidence indicates Homo sapiens are truly the only human species left on Earth. Speculation about survivors persists in folklore and fiction but lacks scientific proof or even plausible support. Without discoveries of specimens or habitats, the consensus remains that other human species died out tens of thousands of years ago, leaving our species the sole surviving hominin on the planet.