When it comes to replacing missing teeth, patients often wonder whether they should get dental implants or a removable partial denture. Both options have their pros and cons, and the best solution depends on each patient’s unique needs and circumstances. Dentists take many factors into account when making recommendations for tooth replacement.
Cost Differences Between Implants and Partials
One of the biggest considerations is cost. On average, a single dental implant with the abutment and crown costs between $3,000-$4,500. A partial denture costs between $300-$2,000 per arch. For patients replacing multiple teeth, the cost savings of a removable partial over implants can be significant. Dental insurance also plays a role, with many policies covering a higher percentage of the cost for a partial compared to implants.
Let’s compare the costs in a hypothetical case of a patient missing three adjacent teeth in the lower jaw. Assuming the national average costs mentioned above:
|Tooth Replacement Option||Estimated Cost|
|Three dental implants||$9,000 – $13,500|
|Lower partial denture||$600 – $2,000|
In this scenario, the partial denture is likely to be at least $7,000 cheaper than the implant option. This significant price difference is one reason many patients opt for a removable partial, especially if they are replacing multiple teeth.
The patient’s oral and general health is another consideration. Dental implants require adequate bone density to support the implant posts. Some people have insufficient bone due to genetics, bone loss, or previous extractions. This can be addressed through bone grafting procedures, but that adds complexity and cost to treatment. People who take certain medications like bisphosphonates for osteoporosis may not be good candidates for implants either.
Partial dentures, on the other hand, can be made for most patients regardless of bone condition. That makes them an attractive option for people with poor bone health. However, the presence of certain oral health conditions like untreated gum disease can affect the proper fit and function of a removable partial denture. In those cases, implants may be the better long-term option if the person gets their gum disease under control before treatment.
Dental implants mimic the look and feel of natural teeth much better than removable partial dentures. For many patients, aesthetics are a priority when it comes to tooth replacement. Implants help maximize the natural appearance of a smile by preventing visible gaps and allowing for lifelike artificial crowns. Removable partials use metal frameworks for retention that can be visible when smiling or talking depending on their design.
At the same time, a partial can be designed with great care to the aesthetics. Using tooth-colored materials in the framework, precision attachments instead of visible metal clasps, and lifelike artificial teeth can help the appliance blend in very well. While it may not be as ideal as an implant, a carefully crafted partial can still produce a beautiful, natural looking smile. The differences may not even be noticeable to the average observer.
Lifestyle and Commitment
One advantage of a partial denture is its removable nature. The patient can take it out for cleaning daily, making it easy to maintain good hygiene compared to permanently fixed bridges. However, being removable also requires additional diligence from patients. Meticulous home care and consistent wearing of the partial are needed to prevent problems.
For patients who lead an active lifestyle, have a demanding career, or may not be as vigilant with oral hygiene, implants can be a better solution. Implants don’t require any special maintenance routines beyond normal brushing and flossing. Patients don’t have to worry about removing and handling the implant like a removable partial.
The commitment involved also differs. After the final restoration, implants don’t require any special adjustments or replacements for many years. Partial dentures often need to be replaced or relined every 3-5 years on average. For patients who want a more permanent set-it-and-forget-it solution, implants may be preferable.
Treatment Time Comparisons
Placement of dental implants is a longer process, especially when bone grafting is needed. It can take several months for implants to integrate with the jawbone during the osseointegration period before crowns can be attached.
A partial denture can typically be made within a few weeks. Follow-up adjustments may be needed for optimal comfort and fit, but the process is still much faster compared to implants. This makes partials an attractive option for patients who need to replace teeth quickly, like for an upcoming wedding or other event.
Impact on Surrounding Teeth
Unlike bridges, partial dentures don’t require grinding down healthy adjacent teeth for support. This helps conserve tooth structure.
However, depending on the design, a removable partial denture may still need some preparation of abutment teeth. Metal clasps can be incorporated which wrap around existing teeth for support and retention. These clasp arms may require minimally invasive reshaping of the tooth surface.
In comparison, dental implants stand alone without impacting neighboring teeth at all. This conservative quality makes them ideal for people who don’t want to alter healthy teeth unnecessarily.
Younger patients need to consider the long term when weighing implant vs. partial options. Partial dentures typically last 5-10 years before needing replacement. Repeated inserting and removal can cause bone loss over time where the partial rests against tissue. This can eventually lead to less support and decreased retention of the appliance.
Implants help preserve bone by mimicking the stimulation of natural tooth roots. Younger patients who opt for partials may still need to eventually get implants later in life if ridge resorption occurs under their denture over the years. If finances allow, getting implants initially may benefit younger patients in the long run.
For older patients with limited life expectancy, investing in dental implants that last for decades may not make as much sense. A partial denture can provide acceptable function for much less cost during their remaining years.
Patient Preference and Comfort
Sometimes the deciding factor comes down to the patient’s personal preference. Some patients like the stability and permanence of implants. Others favor the cost savings and ease of a removable partial denture. Comfort is also a consideration, as some patients adjust to and function better with one option over the other.
A patient who has used a well-made partial successfully in the past may request a new one rather than trying implants for the first time. Conversely, someone who found their removable partial uncomfortable or inconvenient may ask for implants instead. The dentist will take these personal preferences into account when formulating a treatment plan.
Advantages of Implants:
- Look, feel and function like natural teeth
- Prevent bone loss in the jaw
- Do not decay like natural tooth structure
- Conservative treatment of adjacent teeth
- Long-lasting, can last for decades
- Low maintenance other than basic oral hygiene
Advantages of Removable Partial Dentures:
- Significantly lower cost compared to implants
- Faster treatment time than implants
- Easily removable for cleaning
- Usually do not require alteration of healthy teeth
- Can be made for patients with bone loss issues
- Replaces multiple missing teeth for reduced cost
The Dentist’s Recommendation
Ultimately, the dentist will make a recommendation based on the entire clinical picture. This includes the location and number of missing teeth, the health of surrounding teeth, gum and bone condition, age and medical history of the patient, aesthetic and financial considerations, and patient preferences. Together with the patient, they will come up with the best treatment plan to replace missing teeth whether by partial denture, dental implants, or a combination approach.
With good oral hygiene and regular dental visits, both implant-supported restorations and removable partial dentures can provide excellent outcomes. Not everyone is an ideal candidate for implants, nor are they always the best choice even if possible. Partial dentures remain a tried-and-true treatment for replacing multiple missing teeth at a fraction of the cost. When crafted well and cared for diligently, they can serve patients very successfully.
There are many reasons a dentist may recommend a removable partial denture rather than dental implants for a patient. Cost is usually the primary factor, with a partial far more affordable for the average patient with multiple missing teeth. Health conditions like inadequate bone support and active gum disease may also preclude implants as an option. Finally, patient desires, aesthetic concerns, time considerations, and clinical judgment all play a role in determining if a partial is the best treatment plan for an individual patient situation. With a well-made partial and good oral hygiene, many patients can experience high satisfaction and successful tooth replacement when implants are not feasible or preferred.