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What causes someone to send mixed signals?

Sending mixed signals in relationships can be confusing and frustrating for the receiver. Mixed signals occur when someone’s words or actions convey contradictory messages. For example, saying “I love you” while avoiding intimacy can be a mixed signal. What causes someone to send these unclear messages in relationships? There are several potential reasons.

Fear of Vulnerability

Opening up in relationships requires vulnerability. Some people fear becoming too vulnerable, so they instinctively hold back. Past betrayals or heartbreak may underlie this fear of getting hurt again. Sending mixed messages allows them to express some feelings or needs, while still keeping their partner at a distance. This lack of emotional availability maintains a sense of control and protects them from potential rejection or disappointment. They want connection, but only to a certain degree. Mixed signals act as an emotional buffer.


People often send mixed signals when they feel uncertain about the relationship. Doubts about their own feelings or their partner’s intentions breed confusion. They may care deeply but question the relationship’s viability. Or they develop feelings gradually and oscillate between wanting to get closer and needing more space. Sending mixed messages reflects their own internal conflict. Until they resolve their doubts, unclear communication persists.

Need for Control

Some people use mixed signals to maintain power and control in the relationship. Keeping their partner guessing with contradictory words and actions establishes dominance. It also elicits constant reassurance as their partner tries to decipher and please them. For manipulative personalities, mixed signals become a tool for manipulation. The underlying motives may involve insecurity, mistrust, or the need to have the upper hand in the relationship.

Unmet Needs

People whose emotional needs go unfulfilled in a relationship may send mixed signals as a cry for attention and care. For instance, those who crave more intimacy but never receive it may seek closeness through mixed messages. Their overtures get rejected, so they revert to aloofness. This back-and-forth reflects the frustration of unmet needs. Unless their partner becomes more attentive, the cycle persists.

Attachment Style

Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding mixed signals. Those with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style unconsciously suppress their emotional needs. So while they act detached, part of them wants intimacy. Their mixed feelings produce contradictory behaviors. Anxious-preoccupied types intensely want closeness but fear losing their partner. They seek connection but then pull away. Mixed messages reflect this attachment anxiety. Securely attached people communicate their needs directly without internal conflict.


People who lack relationship experience or self-awareness often unintentionally send mixed signals. For example, infatuation may cause someone to pursue a partner ardently without considering long-term compatibility. Or ongoing ambivalence prevents them from discerning or articulating their true desires. Immature communication patterns like “breadcrumbing” (giving just enough attention to string someone along) produce unclear messages. Growth and introspection can resolve these issues.


Some use mixed signals passive-aggressively to express anger or resentment in the relationship. Instead of direct confrontation, they punish their partner with ambiguity. For example, a spouse who feels slighted may withdraw affection but still act polite on the surface. Or they make commitments they don’t intend to keep. Passive-aggression disguises hostility in seemingly innocuous mixed messages.

Loss of Interest

As feelings fade, people often send mixed signals to avoid an overt breakup. A partner who has become dissatisfied may hedge with ambiguity to delay the inevitable conflict. Or if they hope to rekindle the spark, they use lukewarm mixed messages to buy time. Either way, emotional distance translates into unclear communication. Of course, loss of interest doesn’t necessarily cause mixed signals—some directly end floundering relationships.

Mental Health Issues

Certain mental health conditions may contribute to mixed signals. For example, untreated bipolar disorder can cause chaotic, contradictory behaviors during manic and depressive episodes. Some personality disorders are also characterized by instability and unclear personal boundaries. While mental illness alone doesn’t determine behavior, it can muddy interpersonal communication when untreated.


Narcissists view relationships as transactions, so they use mixed signals strategically. Love-bombing (effusive attention) draws partners in. Then narcissists devalue them through ambiguity, indifference, or overt rejection. This produces confusion, heightens dependence, and keeps the partner working for validation. Narcissists use hot-and-cold, stop-and-go messages to control relationships.


Similarly, some emotionally abusive partners deliberately generate cognitive dissonance through mixed signals. They deny wrongdoing, then blame the recipient for “misinterpreting” them. Over time, constantly second-guessing one’s own perception of reality undermines self-trust. In toxic relationships, mixed messages may represent gaslighting rather than mere confusion.


In summary, mixed signals generally stem from internal conflicts, fear of vulnerability, manipulation, unmet needs, immaturity, or loss of interest. Mental disorders and abusive tactics may also generate ambiguity and confusion. While mixed signals cause problems in relationships, insight into their origins can help recipients respond constructively. Of course, persistent mixed messages may signal incompatibility or the need to leave unhealthy relationships.