Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high speed particles. There are two main types of radiation – ionizing and non-ionizing. Ionizing radiation has enough energy to remove electrons from atoms and molecules, which can damage cells and DNA. Non-ionizing radiation doesn’t have enough energy to ionize atoms.
Exposure to very high levels of ionizing radiation, such as from a nuclear explosion, can cause acute health effects like skin burns, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and even death. Lower levels of ionizing radiation, like from medical imaging tests, can increase cancer risk. Non-ionizing radiation, like radio waves and microwaves, can produce heat but doesn’t directly damage DNA.
Different types of ionizing radiation vary in their ability to penetrate matter and damage biological tissue. The most penetrating and harmful types are gamma rays and neutron radiation. Less penetrating types include alpha particles and beta particles.
Types of Ionizing Radiation
Gamma rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation, like X-rays but at higher frequencies. They have no mass or charge. Gamma rays are able to travel many meters in air and penetrate deeply into materials and tissue.
Gamma rays are produced by radioactive decay from unstable atomic nuclei, nuclear explosions, or the interaction of charged particles with matter. Large amounts of gamma rays penetrate deep inside the body and can damage DNA and other molecules, leading to radiation sickness, cancer, and death.
Neutrons are uncharged particles found in the nuclei of atoms. They are released in nuclear fission and fusion reactions. Although neutrons have no charge, they interact with nuclei and atoms they encounter, producing ionization.
Free neutrons traveling at high speeds can penetrate deeply into materials and tissue. Neutrons can strike cellular nuclei and alter or destroy genetic material. Neutron radiation can increase cancer risk and cause radiation sickness.
Alpha particles are made up of two protons and two neutrons bound together. They are relatively large and carry a double positive charge. Alpha particles can be emitted from unstable nuclei during radioactive decay.
Due to their size and charge, alpha particles only travel a few centimeters through air and are stopped by a sheet of paper or the outer layer of dead skin cells. However, alpha particles emit a large amount of ionizing energy over a very short distance. If alpha-emitting material is inhaled or ingested, it can damage internal tissue.
Beta particles are electrons ejected from the nuclei of radioactive atoms during decay. They are much smaller than alpha particles and have a negative charge. Beta particles can penetrate a few millimeters into human tissue but are largely blocked by aluminum.
Exposure to large amounts of beta particles, such as by holding a strong beta emitter close to bare skin, can lead to beta burns. Beta particles can also penetrate the lens of the eye, leading to cataracts. Inhaled or ingested beta emitters can irradiate internal tissues.
Ionizing radiation damages cells by breaking chemical bonds and producing free radicals. The most sensitive targets are molecules like DNA, which control cell growth and reproduction. Radiation can damage DNA directly or by interacting with water molecules to produce reactive oxygen species that attack DNA.
Acute Radiation Syndrome
Very large doses of radiation exceeding 100 millisieverts (mSv) over a short period can produce acute radiation syndrome. This can occur from sources like nuclear accidents, atomic bombs, or radiation therapy accidents.
Acute effects like nausea, vomiting, hair loss, skin burns, cataracts, and sterility begin to appear within hours or days. Extremely high doses over 1,000 mSv damage the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract and are usually fatal within weeks.
Lower doses of radiation below 100 mSv, like from medical imaging or background sources, increase the long-term risk of cancer and genetic defects. The chance of cancer depends on the dose. Risk models estimate that 10,000 people exposed to 1 mSv of radiation will lead to 1-2 excess cancer deaths.
Other observed long-term effects include cognitive impairments, heart disease, and cataracts. The fetus is especially sensitive to radiation, which can increase the risk of birth defects and childhood cancer.
Radiation absorption is measured using units like gray (Gy) and rad. These measure the amount of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter. The sievert (Sv) and rem quantify the biological damage produced by different types of radiation. Dose equivalents represent the amount of a reference radiation, like gamma rays, that produce the same damage.
Geiger counters detect radiation using a gas-filled tube that produce a pulse of current when ionized by radiation. Scintillation counters use materials that produce light when struck by radiation particles, which is converted to an electrical signal. Dosimeters measure cumulative exposure over time using materials like photographic film.
Natural background sources include cosmic radiation from the Sun and space and radioactive elements in soil and rock. The average annual background dose for a person is about 3 mSv. Background levels can be much higher than average in some geographic areas.
|Source||Average Annual Dose (mSv)|
|Ingestion (food and water)||0.29|
|Inhalation (mostly radon)||1.26|
Radiation Safety and Protection
Exposure to ionizing radiation should always be minimized according to the ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) principle. Key protective measures include:
– Time – decreasing exposure time reduces total dose
– Distance – increasing distance from the source reduces exposure
– Shielding – dense materials like lead block radiation
– Monitoring – dosimeters track dose over time
Workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation are subject to strict safety standards and regular monitoring. The maximum allowed dose for radiation workers is 50 mSv per year.
Radiation in Medicine
Medical imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, and nuclear medicine expose patients to ionizing radiation. While the benefits usually outweigh the risks, the ALARP principle is still applied to minimize dose. Long term risks from multiple scans or very high dose procedures need to be weighed against diagnostic benefits.
Radiation from Nuclear Power
Nuclear power plant accidents can release radioactive material into the environment. The Chernobyl disaster exposed millions of people in Eastern Europe and Russia to radioactive fallout leading to increased cancer risk. The Fukushima accident similarly contaminated a large region of Japan with radiation.
Of the different types of ionizing radiation, gamma rays and neutron radiation are the most penetrating and damaging to human tissue. They can travel far through air and materials and damage DNA and cells deep within the body, leading to cancer and radiation sickness. Other types like alpha and beta particles have less penetrating ability but can still damage tissue if radioactive sources are inhaled or ingested. Minimizing exposure time, maximizing distance from sources, and using dense shielding are important protective measures against harmful radiation. While radiation has medical uses, long term cancer risks need to be carefully managed, especially for vulnerable groups like children. Overall, any unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation should be avoided if possible.