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Why do I forget words while speaking?

Forgetting words while speaking is a common occurrence that many individuals experience from time to time. It can be frustrating and embarrassing, especially when it happens in the midst of a conversation or during a public speaking event. While occasional word-finding difficulties are typically considered normal, persistent and frequent instances of forgetting words may be a sign of a communication disorder known as aphasia. In this blog post, we will explore the causes and symptoms of aphasia, and discuss potential treatment options and coping strategies for individuals with this condition.

Causes of Forgetting Words while Speaking

Aphasia is a communication disorder that arises from damage or injury to the language centers of the brain. There are various potential causes for forgetting words while speaking, including:

Brain damage or injury

One of the primary causes of aphasia is brain damage or injury. This could be the result of a stroke, which occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, causing brain cells to become damaged or die. Traumatic brain injuries, such as those from accidents or falls, can also lead to aphasia.

Language processing difficulties

Language processing difficulties can contribute to word-finding difficulties in individuals with aphasia. In particular, two areas of language processing may be affected:

Impaired semantic memory

Semantic memory refers to the ability to store and retrieve knowledge about meanings and concepts of words. Individuals with aphasia may experience difficulties with semantic memory, making it harder to recall the appropriate words during conversation.

Difficulty retrieving words from memory

Another aspect of language processing that can be affected is the ability to retrieve words from memory. Individuals with aphasia may struggle to access the appropriate words, resulting in difficulty finding the right word while speaking.

Types of Aphasia

Aphasia can manifest in different forms, depending on the specific areas of the brain that are affected. Here are three common types of aphasia:

Broca’s aphasia (expressive aphasia)

Broca’s aphasia is characterized by difficulty producing speech. Individuals with Broca’s aphasia may have a limited vocabulary and struggle with constructing sentences. While they may understand spoken language relatively well, their expressive abilities are significantly impaired.

Wernicke’s aphasia (receptive aphasia)

Wernicke’s aphasia affects the individual’s ability to understand spoken and written language. While individuals with Wernicke’s aphasia may speak fluently, their speech is often nonsensical and lacks meaningful content. They may have difficulty comprehending the meaning behind words and sentences.

Anomic aphasia

Anomic aphasia is characterized by difficulty finding and recalling words. Individuals with anomic aphasia may have otherwise normal language production and comprehension but struggle with word retrieval. This can lead to frequent pauses, hesitations, and the use of nonspecific terms while speaking.

Symptoms and Manifestations of Aphasia

Aphasia can present with various symptoms and manifestations. Some common signs of aphasia include:

Difficulty finding and recalling words

The most evident symptom of aphasia is the inability to find or recall specific words. Individuals may experience frequent word-finding difficulties and resort to using vague terms or circumlocutions to compensate.

Replacing forgotten words with similar-sounding ones

In an effort to communicate, individuals with aphasia may substitute the intended word with one that sounds similar but may not convey the exact meaning they intended. This can lead to confusion and miscommunication.

Struggling with sentence formation and grammar

Aphasia can impact an individual’s ability to construct grammatically correct sentences. They may have difficulty organizing their thoughts and forming coherent sentences, leading to choppy and disjointed speech.

Trouble understanding spoken and written language

In addition to difficulties with expression, individuals with aphasia may struggle with understanding spoken and written language. They may have trouble following conversations, comprehending written text, or interpreting complex instructions.

Challenges in reading and writing

Aphasia can also affect an individual’s reading and writing abilities. They may have difficulty recognizing words, understanding written sentences, and producing written text.

Diagnosis and Assessment of Aphasia

If you or someone you know is experiencing persistent difficulties with language and word retrieval, it is important to seek a proper diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The following are common methods used for diagnosing and assessing aphasia:

Medical evaluation

A medical evaluation by a neurologist or a physician is often the first step in diagnosing aphasia. They will assess the individual’s medical history, perform physical exams, and may order additional tests, such as brain imaging techniques (e.g., MRI, CT scan), to identify any damage or abnormalities in the brain.

Language and cognitive tests

Specific language and cognitive tests are used to evaluate an individual’s language abilities, including word retrieval, comprehension, and expressive skills. These tests can help determine the presence and severity of aphasia.

Speech-language pathologist (SLP) evaluation

A speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializes in evaluating and treating communication disorders. They will conduct comprehensive assessments to identify the type and severity of aphasia and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Treatment options for Aphasia

While there is no cure for aphasia, various treatment options can help individuals manage and improve their communication abilities. Two common approaches to aphasia treatment include:

Speech therapy

Speech therapy plays a crucial role in improving language and communication skills for individuals with aphasia. SLPs use a variety of techniques, exercises, and drills to target specific areas of language impairment. These may include word-finding exercises, sentence-building activities, and strategies for improving communication.

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods

In some cases, individuals with severe aphasia may benefit from Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) methods. This involves the use of pictures, gestures, or communication devices to supplement or replace spoken language. AAC systems provide support for conversation and information retrieval.

Coping Strategies and Support for Individuals with Aphasia

Living with aphasia can be challenging, but there are coping strategies and support systems in place to help individuals navigate their daily lives. Some strategies and support options include:

Encouraging use of other forms of communication

Individuals with aphasia can explore alternative forms of communication, such as gestures, facial expressions, or writing. Encouraging and accepting these alternate modes of communication can help facilitate better interaction and understanding.

Patience and understanding from family and friends

Family members, friends, and caregivers can play a significant role in supporting individuals with aphasia. Patience, understanding, and active listening can create a supportive environment that encourages communication and reduces frustration.

Joining support groups or therapy programs

Support groups and therapy programs can provide individuals with aphasia an opportunity to connect with others facing similar challenges. These settings offer a safe space to share experiences, receive emotional support, and learn coping strategies from one another.

Assistive technology for communication

There are various assistive technologies available that can aid individuals with aphasia in their communication efforts. These may include smartphone apps, speech-generating devices, or special software designed to facilitate communication and language recovery.


Forgetting words while speaking can be a frustrating experience, but when it becomes a persistent and frequent occurrence, it may be a sign of aphasia. Aphasia is a communication disorder resulting from brain damage or injury, and it can have a significant impact on an individual’s ability to express and understand language. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, such as speech therapy and AAC methods, can help individuals manage their condition and improve their communication skills. Additionally, the support and understanding of family, friends, and support groups can play a vital role in the overall well-being of individuals with aphasia.


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