Serial killers are among the most frightening and disturbing types of criminals. They are defined as someone who has killed at least three people over a period of time, often with no apparent motive and in a seemingly random manner. What causes someone to repeatedly take human lives with no remorse? One of the key factors is a lack of empathy.
What is empathy?
Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings and emotions of others. It involves being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes and imagine what they might be thinking or experiencing. Empathy allows us to make connections, establish relationships, and have compassion for other people. It is a crucial part of what makes us human.
People who have high levels of empathy are often very attuned to the emotions of others. They can pick up on subtle cues in facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice. This helps them respond with sensitivity and care to what other people are going through. Empathetic individuals are often described as warm, kind, and compassionate.
The lack of empathy in serial killers
In contrast to the general population, serial killers demonstrate an extreme lack of empathy. They are unable to connect emotionally with their victims or feel any remorse for the immense suffering they cause. There are several possible reasons for this:
Inherent personality traits
Many experts believe that psychopathy is a significant factor behind the psychology of serial killers. Psychopaths typically display shallow emotions, egocentrism, and a lack of guilt, empathy, or remorse. Brain imaging studies on psychopathic criminals have revealed underactivity in areas of the brain linked to empathy, moral reasoning, and impulse control.
There is significant evidence that many serial killers experienced severe trauma or abuse during their childhood. This could include physical, sexual, or psychological abuse. Parental neglect or abandonment is also common. These early experiences may have warped the serial killer’s ability to make emotional connections or feel empathy toward others.
Feelings of power and control
For serial killers, committing murder may be associated with feelings of dominance, control, and god-like power over their victims. By objectifying their prey, they are able to deny them any human qualities that might evoke empathy or compassion.
Lack of remorse
Even after being caught, serial killers tend to show no genuine remorse or regret for their crimes. Some even boast about the gruesome details. Their ability to recount their murders with complete detachment points to their fundamental lack of empathy.
Case studies: Examples of serial killers with no empathy
Looking at specific serial killer case studies helps illustrate this absence of empathy:
Ted Bundy was an infamous serial killer responsible for the rape and murder of over 30 women in the 1970s. Bundy displayed manipulative and predatory behavior even as a youth. As an adult, he would put on fake casts and slings to appear harmless to his victims. In interviews while in prison, Bundy spoke about his crimes in a detached, third-person manner. He showed no remorse for the lives he destroyed.
Known as the ???BTK Killer???, Dennis Rader murdered 10 people in Kansas between 1974 and 1991. He engaged in ritualized binding, torture, and killing of his victims. Rader taunted police and media with letters for years. Once arrested, he spoke extensively and dispassionately about his crimes. He was even said to have laughed while recounting his murders, showing absolutely no empathy for his victims.
Aileen Wuornos murdered 7 men in Florida between 1989 and 1990. Her difficult childhood included abuse, teenage pregnancy, and living in the woods. Wuornos claimed that she killed in self-defense. But she later admitted that her motives were hatred and robbery. In interviews, Wuornos showed little emotion or regret when talking about the men she killed.
Psychological research on empathy and serial killers
Various psychological studies reinforce the lack of empathy among serial killers:
|Dr. Robert Hare (1970s)||Developed checklist for identifying psychopathic traits. Serial killers scored high on items related to callousness, lack of empathy, and remorselessness.|
|Dr. Dorothy Otnow Lewis (1980s)||Brain scans of murderers showed lower activity in areas linked to empathy and impulse control compared to normal adults.|
|Dr. Katherine Ramsland (1990s-2000s)||Interviews with over 27 serial killers revealed a repeated inability to feel or express remorse.|
|Dr. Helen Morrison (2000s)||Compared MRI brain scans of psychopaths to those of normal people. Found abnormalities in areas associated with empathy and morality.|
How a lack of empathy enables serial killers to commit brutal crimes
So how does a fundamental lack of empathy enable serial killers to commit horrific murders repeatedly? There are a few key ways:
Viewing victims as objects
With no ability to empathize, serial killers see their victims merely as objects that they can use for their own gratification. They are not seen as living, breathing humans with their own thoughts and feelings.
No emotional connection
Most people would find it difficult to hurt someone they felt an emotional bond with. Serial killers are able to torture and kill complete strangers because they cannot form normal attachments.
Enjoying power and control
Serial killers take pleasure in the power they exert over their victims. Watching others suffer and beg for mercy excites them. A lack of empathy allows them to find satisfaction in even extreme cruelty.
While mentally healthy people would be wracked with guilt over acts of violence, serial killers can commit vicious acts again and again without remorse. Their utter lack of conscience enables their crimes.
How can we recognize lack of empathy?
So how is it possible to identify someone with this chilling absence of empathy? There are some signs that may suggest someone lacks normal empathetic responses:
- Inability to understand others’ perspectives
- Lack of interest in how others feel
- Failure to respond normally to emotional situations
- Loss of inhibition or self-control
- Superficial charm but disconnected relationships
- Acting out or antisocial behavior
- Lack of normal guilt or remorse
Extreme cruelty toward animals is another major red flag, as empathy extends to caring for living creatures. However, it’s important to note that most people with limited empathy do not become serial killers. And many serial killers are adept at blending in and appearing normal.
Can serial killers develop empathy?
An important question is whether serial killers can ever gain empathy. While psychotherapy and rehabilitation programs have been proposed, the consensus is that true psychopathic serial killers cannot be “cured” or taught to feel empathy if they are fundamentally wired differently. The alterations in their brains related to empathy appear to be innate rather than learned behaviors that can be changed.
Some key reasons serial killers are unlikely to gain empathy include:
- Brain differences present from a young age
- Psychopathic personality is fixed throughout life
- Inability to make emotional connections
- Lack of motivation to change
- Feeling of superiority over others
So while therapy or training programs may teach them to mimic empathetic responses, true gains in empathy are limited. The best approach with hardened serial killers is likely keeping them securely confined to prevent future murders.
In summary, the utter lack of empathy and remorse observed in many serial killers enables them to torture, rape, and murder their victims with no qualms. By objectifying their prey and viewing them merely as pawns to control, they do not see their victims as worthy of compassion. While the causes are complex, many serial killers appear to have innate brain differences that result in a near-total absence of empathy. And this disturbance may be present from childhood in many. Unfortunately, the consensus is that hardened adult serial killers cannot be taught empathy they intrinsically lack. So confinement is necessary to prevent them from repeating their crimes. Understanding the role of empathy deficits provides insight into what drives these killers??? horrific acts.