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Do all Christians believe Jesus is God?

The belief that Jesus Christ is God is central to Christianity. However, there are differing views among Christians regarding the exact nature of this belief. While the majority of Christians do believe that Jesus is God, there are some groups and denominations that hold a different view.

Mainstream Christian Beliefs About Jesus as God

Most mainstream Christian churches and denominations believe that Jesus is fully divine. This includes Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and most Protestant churches. Here are some of their specific beliefs about Jesus as God:

  • Jesus has always existed as the second person of the Trinity – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus is co-equal and co-eternal with God the Father and the Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus is 100% God and 100% human in one person.
  • Jesus is the incarnation of God – God took on human flesh in the person of Jesus.
  • Jesus is the visible image of the invisible God.
  • Jesus is the Word of God made flesh.

These mainstream Christian groups point to verses throughout the Bible that seem to indicate Jesus is God:

  • “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” (John 1:1)
  • “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” (John 1:14)
  • “For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form” (Colossians 2:9)
  • “I and the Father are one.” (John 10:30)
  • “Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father.” (John 14:9)

Based on these and other verses, most mainstream Christian groups believe that Jesus is fully divine in the same way as God the Father and the Holy Spirit.

Groups That Do Not Believe Jesus is God

While the mainstream Christian position is that Jesus is God, there are some groups and denominations that hold different beliefs:

Jehovah’s Witnesses

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that Jesus is not God but is God’s first created being. They believe:

  • Jesus is a separate being from God. Jesus is not part of the Trinity.
  • Jesus is God’s first creation, through whom God created everything else.
  • Jesus is subordinate to God.
  • Jesus was the incarnation of Michael the archangel, not of God.
  • Jesus is not to be worshipped or prayed to.

Jehovah’s Witnesses point to Bible verses that seem to distinguish Jesus from God:

  • “The head of the Christ is God” (1 Corinthians 11:3)
  • “The Father is greater than I” (John 14:28)
  • Jesus said to Mary after the resurrection, “I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God” (John 20:17)

Based on these verses, Jehovah’s Witnesses believe Jesus cannot be God if there is a distinction made between him and God.


Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, believe God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit are three separate divine beings. Their beliefs include:

  • God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit are three distinct personages.
  • Jesus was begotten by God the Father in a premortal existence.
  • God the Father is the literal father of Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus is subordinate to God the Father.
  • Jesus’ divinity comes from his literal relationship with God, not because he is God.

Mormons point to the distinct roles of God the Father and Jesus Christ in texts like Christ’s baptism:

  • “After being baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove and lighting on Him, and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.’” (Matthew 3:16-17)

According to Mormons, this shows three separate divine personages with distinct roles.

Christian Science

Christian Science, also called The Church of Christ Scientist, has an understanding of Jesus that is significantly different from mainstream Christianity. Their views include:

  • Jesus was not God, but a man who exemplified the Christ idea of God’s sonship.
  • Jesus did not die to pay the price for sins. His crucifixion and resurrection served to prove death false and pointless.
  • Jesus is divine only in the sense that we all share God’s divine spirit.
  • Jesus is not to be worshipped.

Christian Scientists focus on Jesus’ teachings and healing works, rather than his divinity. They do not see Jesus as equal to God, but as someone who demonstrated man’s spiritual unity with God.


Unitarians believe in one God and deny the doctrine of the Trinity. Their beliefs include:

  • There is only one God, not three persons.
  • Jesus was a prophet and teacher, but he was a human being, not God.
  • Jesus was adopted by God to be his Son, not an actual divine being.
  • Jesus did not pre-exist before his human life.
  • Jesus is not to be worshipped, only God the Father.

Unitarians cite biblical verses that seem to show Jesus as subordinate to God or as lacking divine attributes:

  • “The Father is greater than I.” (John 14:28)
  • “No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” (Mark 13:32)

Based on this, Unitarians conclude that Jesus was purely human and not divine in any way. His teachings are valued, but he is not considered God.

Non-Trinitarian Groups That Do Believe Jesus is God

Not all non-Trinitarian groups deny Jesus’ divinity. There are some that still affirm that Jesus is God, but differ on the doctrine of the Trinity. These include:

Oneness Pentecostalism

Oneness Pentecostals affirm that Jesus is God, but reject the Trinity doctrine. Their beliefs include:

  • There is only one God, and his name is Jesus.
  • The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are just different titles or aspects of the one God, not distinct persons.
  • Jesus is the human incarnation of the one God.
  • Jesus is both fully divine and fully human.

Oneness Pentecostals cite verses about Jesus’ divinity, but interpret them through a non-Trinitarian lens. They believe Jesus is the human face of the one God.

Some Modalists

Modalism is a non-Trinitarian belief that God manifests himself in different “modes” at different times, as either the Father, Son, or Holy Spirit. Not all modalists deny that Jesus is God, with beliefs such as:

  • There is only one God who manifests himself in three modes, not three distinct persons.
  • In the incarnation, the one God manifested himself in flesh as the Son, Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Christ is the same person as the Father, just revealed in a different mode.
  • Jesus Christ is thus fully divine, being the same God as the Father.

Modalists maintain that Jesus is God, the same God as the Father, while rejecting the idea that he is a distinct person within the Godhead.

Comparison of Beliefs About Jesus’ Divinity

Here is a table summarizing the different beliefs about whether Jesus is God among various Christian groups:

Group Believe Jesus is Fully Divine? Trinitarian?
Mainstream Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant) Yes Yes
Jehovah’s Witnesses No No
Mormonism No No
Christian Science No No
Unitarianism No No
Oneness Pentecostalism Yes No
Some Modalists Yes No

This shows that within Christianity, belief in Jesus as fully divine corresponds closely with belief in the doctrine of the Trinity. Most groups that reject the Trinity also reject Jesus as God. Meanwhile, the two non-Trinitarian groups that do maintain faith in the divinity of Jesus have unique perspectives on what this means.


In conclusion, while the mainstream Christian position is that Jesus is fully God, not all Christian groups actually hold this belief. Groups like Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormons, Christian Scientists, and Unitarians see Jesus as a human prophet or spiritual teacher, not as a divine being equal to God. Meanwhile, Oneness Pentecostals and some modalists affirm faith in the divinity of Jesus but understand this in a non-Trinitarian way. So while belief in the deity of Christ is a core tenet of historical orthodox Christianity, there are both Trinitarian and non-Trinitarian groups that reject or significantly reinterpret this belief.