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How many middle ear do we have?

The human ear is a complex organ that allows us to hear and process sounds. It is divided into three main sections – the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The middle ear plays a key role in conducting sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. But how many middle ears do humans have? In this article, we will explore the anatomy of the middle ear and arrive at the answer to this question.

Anatomy of the Middle Ear

The middle ear is an air-filled chamber located inside the temporal bone of the skull. It is positioned between the outer ear and the inner ear. The main components of the middle ear are:

  • Eardrum (tympanic membrane) – This separates the outer ear from the middle ear.
  • Ossicles – These are three tiny bones called the malleus, incus and stapes that transmit vibrations.
  • Eustachian tube – This connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and helps maintain equal air pressure.

The eardrum picks up sound waves and vibrates. These vibrations are transmitted through the ossicles to the inner ear. The stapes bone is connected to a thin membrane called the oval window, which leads into the inner ear. As the ossicles vibrate, they cause the oval window to vibrate, sending waves into the fluid of the inner ear.

Function of the Middle Ear

The key functions of the middle ear are:

  • Amplify sound – The area difference between the eardrum and oval window results in increased force of vibrations.
  • Protect inner ear – It buffers the inner ear from very loud sounds.
  • Transmit vibrations – The ossicles efficiently transmit eardrum vibrations to the inner ear.

So in summary, the middle ear acts as an impedance-matching device to optimize transmission of sound waves from air to fluid. Now let’s look at the number of middle ears in humans.

How Many Middle Ears Do Humans Have?

Humans have two middle ears, one located in each temporal bone on either side of the head. This bilateral structure allows us to hear sounds coming from all directions and locate their source.

Here is a quick recap of the key points:

  • The middle ear is located inside the temporal bone of the skull, one on each side.
  • It contains the eardrum, ossicles (hearing bones), and Eustachian tube.
  • It transmits sound from outer ear to inner ear on each side.
  • Having two middle ears allows stereo or binaural hearing.

Therefore, the answer is that humans have two middle ears, one on the left and one on the right. This dual structure provides us with efficient conduction of sound and directional hearing ability.

Binaural Hearing

Having two separate middle ear structures gives humans binaural or stereo hearing. This provides several advantages:

  • Locate sound sources – Our brain compares inputs from both ears to figure out the origin of a sound.
  • Hear faint sounds – Even if one ear is partially blocked, the other can still pick up faint noises.
  • 3D hearing – Binaural hearing contributes to our ability to localize sound in 3D space.
  • Filter background noise – Important sounds can be filtered from background noise for improved clarity.

Binaural hearing depends on the complex neural processing in our auditory pathways and brain. The interaural time and intensity differences between sounds reaching each ear are analyzed to generate directional information.

Problems Due to Middle Ear Damage

Since the middle ear is vital for collecting and transmitting sound, any damage can result in hearing impairment. Common middle ear problems include:

Ruptured Eardrum

A hole or tear in the eardrum disrupts its vibration in response to sound. This can cause temporary hearing loss. Ruptured eardrums may heal on their own over time. But surgery may be required in severe cases.

Otitis Media

This is inflammation and infection of the middle ear. It causes fluid build-up and earache. Hearing loss, especially in children, can occur temporarily. Antibiotics, decongestants, or drainage tubes can treat otitis media.


This is an abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear ossicles. It causes stiffening of the tiny bones, impeding their sound transmission function. Gradually progressing deafness may result. Correction may require surgery.

Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

If the Eustachian tube is blocked, the air pressure between the outer and middle ear can become imbalanced. This leads to muffled hearing which may be relieved by ear popping, swallowing, or medication.

So damage to any part of the middle ear can negatively impact hearing. Swift diagnosis and treatment is key to prevent permanent deficits. Now let’s look at some other organisms and their number of middle ears.

Middle Ear Structure in Other Organisms

The number and structure of middle ears varies among different organisms:

Organism Number of Middle Ears
Mammals (like humans) 2 (one in each ear)
Birds None
Crocodiles 2
Turtles 2
Snakes 2
Frogs 1

As the table shows, most tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates) possess a pair of middle ears. This enables directional hearing which offers a survival advantage. Birds lack a dedicated middle ear. Instead they rely on the columella, an auditory ossicle that transmits sound via the ear canal to the inner ear.

In organisms like frogs that spend time both on land and in water, the middle ear may be exposed or recessed into the skull. This protects it from the different media through which sound has to be transmitted. The middle ear structure is therefore adapted to the environment and lifestyle of the organism.


To summarize, humans have two middle ear structures located in the left and right ear. Each middle ear contains the three ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) along with the eardrum and Eustachian tube. Having two middle ears allows effective binaural hearing, which is vital for 3D sound localization and interpreting complex auditory environments. Damage to the middle ear can cause conductive hearing loss. Other vertebrates may have one, two, or no middle ears, based on their evolutionary adaptations. Therefore, the takeaway is that humans have two middle ears as part of our specialized hearing apparatus.