Skip to Content

What is the marketing mix PDF?

The marketing mix is one of the fundamental concepts of marketing. It refers to the set of controllable tactical marketing tools – product, price, place and promotion – that a company combines to produce the response it wants in the target market. The marketing mix is also often referred to as the 4Ps.

What are the 4Ps of the marketing mix?

The 4Ps of the marketing mix are:

  • Product – The products or services being offered to customers.
  • Price – The value exchanged for the product or service.
  • Place – Where the product or service is made available for customers.
  • Promotion – Communication tactics used to raise awareness of the product or service.

Together these four elements make up the marketing mix that a business will use to market its products or services. Let’s look at each of the 4Ps in more detail:


The product aspects of the marketing mix cover everything to do with the product or service that is being offered to customers. This includes not just the physical product itself but also factors such as branding, packaging, warranties, quality and customer service.

Key product decisions include:

  • What products or services to offer
  • Product features and quality
  • Product branding and packaging
  • Warranties and guarantees
  • Complementary products and services
  • The product lifecycle


Price refers to the amount of money that customers must pay to purchase the product. Pricing decisions need to take into account profit margins, competitive pressures, and customer perceptions of value. Key pricing decisions include:

  • Pricing strategy e.g. cost-based, demand-based, or competition-based pricing
  • Discounts and promotional pricing tactics
  • Payment terms and credit terms
  • International pricing strategies in global markets


Place, also known as distribution, refers to getting the product or service to the customer. This includes decisions about distribution channels, market coverage, inventory management, order fulfillment, transportation, and more. Key place decisions include:

  • Distribution channels (e.g. retail, wholesale, e-commerce)
  • Market coverage (local, regional, national, global markets)
  • Inventory management and warehousing
  • Order fulfillment and logistics
  • Transportation (air, sea, road, rail)
  • Distribution networks


Promotion covers all the ways that a company communicates with customers about its products, services, and brand. Promotional activities may include:

  • Advertising (print, broadcast, digital media)
  • Direct marketing (email, catalogs, telemarketing)
  • Sales promotions (discounts, coupons, contests)
  • Public relations (press releases, events, sponsorship)
  • In-store displays and signage
  • Social media marketing
  • Loyalty programs
  • Personal selling

Why is the marketing mix important?

There are several reasons why the marketing mix is critically important for businesses:

  • It provides a framework for developing marketing plans and strategy – the 4Ps provide a useful way to organize marketing planning activities.
  • All elements of the marketing mix are interrelated – pricing impacts demand, promotion drives sales, distribution allows customer access. The 4Ps must work together.
  • It helps to define a competitive marketing strategy – effective use of the 4Ps allows a company to differentiate itself and compete in the marketplace.
  • It allows flexibility to meet diverse customer needs – the mix can be adapted to meet the needs of different customer segments.
  • It improves accountability – the 4Ps model provides a way to allocate budget and resources across marketing activities.

In summary, the marketing mix model is essential for defining marketing tactics, outlining responsibilities, allocating budget, and developing an integrated marketing plan that delivers business results.

How do you create a marketing mix?

Here are the key steps for developing a marketing mix:

  1. Define the target market – Identify market segments, buyer personas, and target customers. Understand their needs and behaviors.
  2. Set marketing objectives – Outline the business goals and marketing objectives you want the marketing mix to achieve.
  3. Develop product strategy – Create product offerings to match target customer needs. Position products based on benefits and unique selling points.
  4. Set pricing strategy – Select a pricing approach and set pricing levels. Consider costs, profit margins, and perceived value.
  5. Choose distribution channels – Select distribution channels to make products conveniently available to target customers.
  6. Create promotional plan – Develop promotional strategies and tactics to effectively communicate with the target audience.
  7. Allocate budget – Determine budget for each marketing mix element to meet marketing objectives.
  8. Implement plan – Execute marketing strategies across each element of the marketing mix.
  9. Monitor and adapt – Evaluate results and adjust the mix as needed to improve performance.

Creating an effective marketing mix is not a one-time effort – it requires continuous monitoring of internal and external factors and fine-tuning the mix to optimize results.

What are the 7Ps of the marketing mix?

The 7Ps of the marketing mix add three additional elements to the original 4Ps. The extended model was developed as the marketing mix was seen as lacking customer-centricity. The 7Ps allow for a more comprehensive approach to marketing strategy:

  • Product
  • Price
  • Place
  • Promotion
  • People – Everyone involved in the delivery of products and services, including staff, partners and customers.
  • Process – The procedures, systems, and activities through which services are delivered.
  • Physical evidence – The tangible elements of service delivery like environments and objects.

For services marketing in particular, the extra 3Ps help to account for the unique challenges in marketing intangible offerings. The 7Ps provide an expanded framework for developing integrated marketing plans.

What are some examples of the marketing mix?

Here are some examples of how companies apply the marketing mix:


  • Product – Gourmet coffee beverages, pastries, coffee beans.
  • Price – Premium pricing appropriate for high-end positioning.
  • Place – Urban and suburban locations, in-store and drive-thru.
  • Promotion – Branding emphasizing quality and experience. Loyalty program.


  • Product – Burgers, fries, chicken sandwiches and wraps. Value meals for families.
  • Price – Dollar menus and combo meals priced competitively for mass market.
  • Place – Ubiquitous locations, drive-thru for convenience and speed.
  • Promotion – Mass market TV and digital advertising. Coupons and contests.


  • Product – Vast selection of retail products. Own electronic devices.
  • Price – Discount pricing, price matching with competitors.
  • Place – Online marketplace, fast and free shipping options.
  • Promotion – Personalized recommendations. User reviews build trust.

These examples illustrate how different marketing mixes can be tailored to specific business and customer needs within a given industry.

What are some limitations of the marketing mix?

While the marketing mix is a foundational framework, it does have some limitations including:

  • Its focus is limited mainly to tactical decisions about individual Ps rather than strategy.
  • The model emphasizes internal controllable factors but is less useful for external factors.
  • It does not provide guidance on how to combine and prioritize the Ps.
  • The 4Ps may be overly simplistic for certain industries such as services marketing.
  • It lacks customer-centricity outside of product features and channels.
  • The mix by itself does not guarantee success without solid foundational market research.

Despite these limitations, the marketing mix model remains highly relevant in modern marketing. Using the mix as a starting point combined with customer insights, analytics, and clear strategic vision allows marketers to develop integrated plans that deliver results.

What are some modern marketing mix models?

Some modern variations on the marketing mix aim to improve on the original model. Examples include:

The 4Cs – Customer solution, Cost, Convenience, Communication

This model focuses attention on the customer perspective in the digital age:

  • Customer solution (product) – Fulfilling customer wants and needs
  • Cost (price) – Cost to satisfy customer needs
  • Convenience (place) – Easy for customers to find and use products
  • Communication (promotion) – Interactive dialogue with empowered consumers

The 4As – Acceptability, Affordability, Accessibility, Awareness

This model takes a sales-oriented approach:

  • Acceptability – Products aligned with customer needs
  • Affordability – Competitive pricing for the target market
  • Accessibility – Products readily available for customers to purchase
  • Awareness – Promoting products to drive customer knowledge and interest

The 4Es – Experience, Exchange, Evangelism, Everyplace

This model focuses on experiential marketing:

  • Experience – Positive, meaningful customer interactions with products/services
  • Exchange – Offering real value in every customer transaction
  • Evangelism – Encouraging customers to promote products to others
  • Everyplace – Omnichannel distribution across all customer touchpoints

These updated models provide marketers with fresh perspectives while retaining the strengths of the original marketing mix.

How has digital transformation impacted the marketing mix?

Digital transformation has had a significant impact on the marketing mix in a number of ways:

  • Products and services now include digital features, apps, and online platforms.
  • Dynamic pricing has become possible based on real-time data and algorithms.
  • Online channels have joined or replaced traditional physical distribution.
  • Digital promotion through social, SEO/SEM, and mobile ads complements traditional media.
  • Digital data provides real-time insights to optimize and adapt the mix.
  • The customer experience extends to digital touchpoints outside the classic 4Ps.
  • New digital Ps like Personalization, Participation and Peer-influence emerge.

Therefore, marketers must integrate digital throughout the marketing mix while retaining human creativity, emotions, and meaningful personalization in messaging and customer interactions.


The marketing mix is a classic framework for developing marketing strategy and plans. While the original 4Ps model has limitations, it remains a core foundation that marketers build upon using updated approaches, customer insights, digital capabilities, and strategic vision. A well-designed marketing mix integrating product, price, place and promotion creates the foundation for building strong brands and customer relationships.