Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. It is characterized by an ongoing pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interferes with functioning and development. There are three main subtypes of ADHD: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive, and combined type. ADHD typically begins in childhood, but symptoms often persist into adulthood. The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests genetics and neurobiology contribute significantly.
ADHD is typically treated with a combination of behavioral therapy and medication. Medication can help reduce core ADHD symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. There are two main classes of ADHD medications:
- Stimulants: Increase availability of certain neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Examples include methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (Adderall).
- Non-stimulants: Affect neurotransmitters through different mechanisms. Examples include atomoxetine (Strattera), clonidine (Kapvay), and guanfacine (Intuniv).
Among these medications, stimulants tend to be the most commonly prescribed for treating ADHD. Let’s take a closer look at which stimulant in particular is prescribed most often.
Methylphenidate is the Most Prescribed Medication for ADHD
According to clinical practice and prescription data, methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribed medication for ADHD. Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant that is believed to work by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine activity in the brain. The most well-known brand name formulation of methylphenidate is Ritalin.
Some key facts and statistics about methylphenidate:
- Used to treat ADHD in children and adults
- Available in short-acting and long-acting formulations
- Prescribed for approximately 80% of individuals diagnosed with ADHD
- Accounts for 80-90% of stimulant prescriptions written for ADHD
- Over 18 million prescriptions for methylphenidate were written in 2020
Methylphenidate was first introduced in the 1950s and was approved by the FDA in 1955 for treating behavioral disorders. Once the diagnostic criteria for ADHD was established in the 1980s, methylphenidate quickly became the most frequently prescribed medication for this condition. Several branded and generic formulations have been developed over the years.
Common Brand Name Formulations of Methylphenidate
- Ritalin: First branded version, provides immediate release
- Ritalin LA: Provides extended release over the day
- Concerta: Gives extended release over 12 hours
- Daytrana: Patch applied on skin for extended release
- Quillivant XR: Liquid methylphenidate for extended release
These different versions provide physicians flexibility in dosing and customizing treatment plans based on individual patient needs.
Why is Methylphenidate So Widely Used?
There are several key reasons methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribed medication for treating ADHD:
Established efficacy and safety profile
As the original ADHD stimulant medication, methylphenidate’s efficacy and safety has been demonstrated through over 60 years of clinical experience and research. There is an extensive evidence base supporting its ability to reduce ADHD symptoms in children and adults with minimal side effects and risk when taken appropriately.
Favorable onset and duration of action
Methylphenidate generally provides noticeable symptom relief within 30 to 60 minutes of taking a dose. Effects typically last for 3 to 5 hours for immediate release versions and 6 to 12 hours for extended release. This allows dosing to be tailored to an individual’s daily routine and activities.
Lower potential for abuse
While methylphenidate can be abused, studies show its abuse potential is lower compared to other stimulants like amphetamines. This makes physicians more comfortable prescribing it, especially when treating adolescents and adults.
Wide range of formulations available
As covered earlier, methylphenidate is available in multiple branded and generic versions, giving patients options like short/long-acting, tablet/liquid/patch, and lower cost generics.
Generally well tolerated
Most patients do not experience significant side effects from methylphenidate. The most common side effects are decreased appetite, headache, insomnia, anxiety, and irritability. For most, side effects are mild to moderate and dissipate quickly.
Prescription Rates for Other ADHD Medications
While methylphenidate is by far the most prescribed ADHD drug, other medications are used as well. Here is a look at prescription rates for other common ADHD medications:
|Annual Prescriptions (2020)
Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (sold as Adderall and generic equivalents) is the second most prescribed ADHD medication. The non-stimulants atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine are newer options that can be effective alone or alongside stimulants.
- Onset of action: Stimulants act more rapidly than non-stimulants, which can take days or weeks to reach full effect.
- Side effects: Stimulants more often cause decreased appetite, insomnia, anxiety. Non-stimulants less likely to cause these effects.
- Schedule classification: Stimulants are Schedule II controlled substances with higher abuse potential. Non-stimulants are not scheduled.
Factors Influencing Medication Selection
While methylphenidate is considered first-line, the most appropriate ADHD medication depends on several key factors:
Age of patient
Stimulants are recommended as first choice for children over 6 and adolescents. Non-stimulants may be preferred for younger children and adults.
Type of ADHD symptoms
Stimulants are effective for classic hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Non-stimulants may help more with focus and organizational challenges.
Side effect profile
Non-stimulants may be favored if stimulant side effects like decreased appetite, insomnia, or anxiety are particularly problematic.
Substance abuse risk
Non-stimulants are safer options for those with history of drug or alcohol abuse.
Certain conditions like tic disorders and anxiety disorders influence medication choice.
Preferences around treatment approach, side effects, schedule considerations, and cost help guide medication selection.
Response to previous treatment
Switching medications may be needed if a previous trial was ineffective or not tolerated well.
In summary, methylphenidate remains the stimulant of choice and most prescribed medication for ADHD. Its proven track record, versatility, and favorable efficacy and safety profile make it an appropriate first-line treatment for most diagnosed with ADHD. However, other stimulant and non-stimulant medications provide additional options that allow physicians to tailor medical treatment to each patient’s unique needs and circumstances.